The RIIG is a project that follows the FAIR
principle and wishes
provide access to data with the most transparent and open methodology possible. This
presents the main methodological choices that have been made during the structuring of
data and the preparation of the RIIG platform. It also aims to explain how and under
conditions our work can be reused.
In the Recueil des inscriptions gauloises (1985-2002), the numbering
logic followed the graphic system used (G for Gallo-Greek [RIG I], E
Gallo-Etruscan [RIG II.1] and L for
Gallo-Latin [RIG II.1 and RIG II.2]). The inscriptions
the corpus of Gallo-Greek inscriptions published in 1985 ranged from G-1 to
G-281, subsequently supplemented by several articles published in Études
by restarting the numbering from G-500. The Gallo-Latin inscriptions,
between 1988 and 2002, were numbered from L-1 to L-16 for stone inscriptions
from L-18 to L-139 for instrumentum inscriptions, with a
article published in Études celtiques in 2008,
bringing the numbering up to L-141.
Some inscriptions, with both a Latin and a Greek inscription, were double
In order to allow a regular incrementation of the corpus, to emphasize
sites (thus the dating and the contexts of use of writing in the Gallic
we have chosen a geographical logic, aligning ourselves with the online
developed for Cisalpine Celtic (Lexicon
Leponticum) as well as for Palaeohispanic inscriptions
The French departments have been reduced either to their initials
BDR for Bouches-du-Rhône) or to the first three letters (e.g. HER for
so as to have a "letter-number-number" sequence corresponding to the name of
department-number of the site-number of the inscription. The corresponding
numbering in the original RIG is also given in brackets for
Thus, the inscription of Alleins, corresponding to G-1 in RIG I, became in
the first recorded inscription of the first site of Bouches-du-Rhône, i.e.
The sites are then grouped by major French regions and can be queried by a
simple sorting process, both in the « Inscriptions »
section and in the « Sites
archéologiques » section.
Within the framework of this ANR 19-CE27-0003 project, we have given
priority to the stone inscriptions, which constitute an important part of
Gallo-Greek file and the entire Gallo-Latin file of RIG II.1. For the
sake of coherence, notably for the contextualisation of data on Gallo-Greek
sites, we have also treated the ceramic inscriptions that were published in
RIG I and its supplements, as in the case of Martigues for example.
The corpus could later be extended to include inscriptions on
instrumentum, instrumentum, including those found outside French
territory, even if in the framework of this ANR-19-CE27-0003 project, only
discovered in France are included. We have in fact excluded Gallo-Etruscan
inscriptions, as they were already covered in the Lexicon
Leponticum, as well as four previously published
the one from Port in Switzerland [RIG I, G-280] on a sword, two
found in Manching in Bavaria [
Compléments 2003, G-621] and an inscription on instrumentum from
Luxembourg found at Titelberg, [
Compléments 2003, G-620].
At present, the entries are presented in alphabetical order of the
Sites and maps
The location of the archaeological sites was based on those available in Pleiades Pleiades and those
Geonames. Geonames. In some cases,
particularly for rock inscriptions, we used GPS coordinates.
The background map for the distribution of inscriptions is the (Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire
project) DARE (Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire project) with the
of cities and roads indicated in their Latin forms.
The digitisation of the data had to deal with varying attributions and
naming habits (according to specialists, according to regions etc.). Dates
presented in Roman numerals (-Ist/Ist) but the encoding is done in a digital
(machine readable) allowing to constitute the facets "Dating". A level of
certainty has been assigned to determine whether the dating is assured or
(low/medium (more than a century)/high (less than a century).
The division into periods was established as follows (using the example of
-I and I):
||-0100 to -0001
||0001 to 0100
||-0100 to -0051
||0001 to 0050
||-0050 to -0001
||0051 to 0100
|Beginning of the century
||-0100 to -0071
||0001 to 0030
||-0070 to -0031
||0031 to 0070
|End of the century
||-0030 to -0001
||0071 to 0100
||-0100 to -0067
||0001 to 0033
||-0066 to -0034
||0034 to 0066
||-0033 to -0001
||0067 to 0100
||-0100 to -0076
||0001 to 0025
||-0075 to -0051
||0026 to 0050
||-0050 to -0026
||0051 to 0075
||-0025 to -0001
||0076 to 0100
Correspondence with the periods usually called:
- augustean: `notBefore="-0027" notAfter="0014" cert="high"`
- ppre-augustaean: `notBefore="-0050" notAfter="-0027" cert="high"`
- La Tène III : `notBefore="-0100" notAfter="-0025" cert="high"`
- Tiberius' reign: `notBefore="0014" notAfter="0037" cert="high"`
- High Empire: ` notAfter="0200" cert="high"`
The notion of epigraphic landscape allows us to place the Gaulish
inscriptions of a given site in a larger framework, integrating the
other inscriptions and artefacts found at the same place. For this
purpose, we have provided a link to the data of the ERC LatinNow project (starting grant
n°715626) headed by Alex Mullen in Nottingham. This link points to their
webGIS and, through the various layers available in this project, it is
possible to display the desired additional data.
Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)
Title of inscriptions
In PETRAE, It
necessary to assign a title to identify the inscriptions in the corpus.
inscriptions have been given names (the dedication to the Mères
example, or the stele at Saint-Germain-Source-Seine).
This type of designation implies an interpretation of the inscription
exact meaning of the text is often still debated. Also, for the sake of
in the face of our state of knowledge and interpretation of the
have chosen to be as neutral as possible, indicating only and
- the form of the support: stele, plaque, basin, pillar, capital,
etc. When the form is uncertain or indeterminate, we stick to
support (e.g. stone); these elements are well identified
LOD and make it possible to align the corpora with each other.
- a possible adjective, which further specifies the function of
object, when it is known with certainty (e.g.: funerary
- the place of origin of the registration (e.g.: of
- the order number (e.g.: funerary stele of Coudoux 1)
Types of texts
The types of texts selected are the following:
With the exception of the label, all have a LOD with Pactols
Opentheso and Eagle.
- property mark
- Funerary inscription (rather than epitaph)
- Religious/cultural inscription (as the notion of votive
refers to the votum which is a purely Roman element)
- Signature of the craftsman
- Evergetic inscription (especially for monument dedications)
- Quarryman's marks
Facets, thesauri et Linked Open Data
The facets of the French regions and departments are aligned with each
also with Geonames and Trismegistos.
The facets of the archaeological sites refer to the archaeological
prepared as part of the project ERC
Patrimonium (ERC-StG 716375) by Vincent Razanajao.
They are aligned with Pleiades.
When the inscription is already listed in Trismegistos, the Trismegistos
indicated at the end of the record.
The RIIG has built up several ontologies collected
following thesauri which concern:
The full EpiDoc XML for each sheet is available for download at the end
record. This would not have been possible without the work of Nathalie
and Nolwenn Chevalier.
The text of the inscription is presented in capitals and as it is read
object (in scriptio continua if necessary) and the standards are those
conventions used in PETRAE. Lunar epsilons and sigmas have been
transcribed, as well as cursive omegas where appropriate cases.
The reading of this diplomatic version is identified by an author and a
(e.g. MLE-a), which allows the comments and remarks relating to it to be
identified in the apparatus.
Each reading is also assigned a level of certainty (high, medium, low)
to the the probability of the reading itself, of the grammatical
the interpretation that is made of it.
The challenge of this presentation is twofold:
By ticking the 'Linguistic features' box, one can see the breakdown and
interpretation that has been made for each element read in the
where identifiable for each element read in the inscriptions, where they
identifiable. It is these elements which are used to create the indexes
(onomastic, lexical and verbal) and also refer to the elements of
syntax presented in a very synthetic way in the page
- retrospective and historiographicalby leaving a trace of
different possible interpretations of the same possible
of the same inscription, including some ancient ones that seem
- prospective and heuristicleaving open the various
of interpretation, since in the context of a language with
attestation such as Gaulish of interpretation, since in the
language with fragmentary attestation such as Gaulish some
hapaxes and the progress of research will perhaps allow us to
hypothesis to another.
By ticking the box "Glyphs", the letters that
have been listed so far in the table in RIG I (pp. 427-431). A
repertory of the palaeography of Gaulish inscriptions will soon be
the page «Grammatica».
We have proposed elements of translation whenever it seemed possible to
They depend on the reading proposed for each text, identified by tags.
The choice of having several specialists intervene on the same
in their own language) allows
to show the polyphony of studies on Gaulish epigraphy while allowing
the platform the possibility of quoting their sources as closely as
The insertion of remarks is done as the project is still in progress.
contributors to each record
are mentioned at the bottom of each one.
This section brings together brief and often generic remarks for
of caution and accuracy. We have chosen to report only those elements
assured, to establish facts as far as possible, and to keep personal
interpretations to a minimum. All of the proposed elements are
whole, as milestones for the elaboration of the chapters of the final
and as elements allowing us to constitute the most reliable
discourse, to the extent of our current knowledge on Gaulish epigraphy.
In the records
There are several bibliographic entries in the records:
- the edition in corpora which identifies the editio
princeps of the inscription
- Bibliographical commentary which brings together,
chronologically, the various bibliographical references relating
- Bibliography of the RIG which gathers the references
the initial RIG;
- Bibliography of the RIIG which gathers the references
the inscription published after 1985. The references relating to
archaeological site are specifically collected in the site
All the bibliography cited in the records and all the documents that
build the corpus are available on the website in the section «Bibliography»
also in a Zotero
to which it is possible to subscribe.
Please contact us to let us know of any references that you think
useful to add to this to this collection.
In Zotero, the general bibliography is classified by author name,
references have also been grouped by sub-folders: by inscriptions and by
gathered by major regions, thus respecting the general hierarchy of the
Each record is a new edition of the text in its own way. It therefore
and indicates the date of modification of the data.
How to cite
Exemple given for BDR-01-01:
Ruiz Darasse C., Blanchet H., Jordán Cólera C., Stifter D., Wodtko
Chevalier N., Prévôt N., « RIIG
BDR-01-01 », in Ruiz Darasse C. (éd.), Recueil informatisé des
(last accessed 28 juin 2022).
A URI is available at the bottom of each record for any direct
from a registration record.
The images of the initial RIG are available in very low quality
invite you to consult them on the paper volumes for more details.
The images produced in the framework of the RIG have been
the IIIF Nakala platform of the TGIR
and are available under the CC-BY-SA-NC-ND
license. They are free of rights but subject to the duties
- AttributionYou must give appropriate credit, provide a
the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in
reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor
endorses you or your use.
In particular, it is required to mention the author of the
the place of storage and the obligatory information.
- Non Commercial You may not use the material for
- No Derivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon
material, you may not distribute the modified material.
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal
technological measures that legally restrict others from doing
the license permits.
Epigraphic and linguistic data