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Methodology


The RIIG is a project that follows the FAIR principle and wishes to provide access to data with the most transparent and open methodology possible. This page presents the main methodological choices that have been made during the structuring of the data and the preparation of the RIIG platform. It also aims to explain how and under what conditions our work can be reused.

Numbering


In the Recueil des inscriptions gauloises (1985-2002), the numbering logic followed the graphic system used (G for Gallo-Greek [RIG I], E for Gallo-Etruscan [RIG II.1] and L for Gallo-Latin [RIG II.1 and RIG II.2]). The inscriptions included in the corpus of Gallo-Greek inscriptions published in 1985 ranged from G-1 to G-281, subsequently supplemented by several articles published in Études celtiques (1988, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1996 et 2003) by restarting the numbering from G-500. The Gallo-Latin inscriptions, published between 1988 and 2002, were numbered from L-1 to L-16 for stone inscriptions and from L-18 to L-139 for instrumentum inscriptions, with a supplementary article published in Études celtiques in 2008, bringing the numbering up to L-141. Some inscriptions, with both a Latin and a Greek inscription, were double numbered.
In order to allow a regular incrementation of the corpus, to emphasize the sites (thus the dating and the contexts of use of writing in the Gallic world), we have chosen a geographical logic, aligning ourselves with the online corpora developed for Cisalpine Celtic (Lexicon Leponticum) as well as for Palaeohispanic inscriptions (Hesperia).
The French departments have been reduced either to their initials (e.g. BDR for Bouches-du-Rhône) or to the first three letters (e.g. HER for Hérault) so as to have a "letter-number-number" sequence corresponding to the name of the department-number of the site-number of the inscription. The corresponding numbering in the original RIG is also given in brackets for convenience. Thus, the inscription of Alleins, corresponding to G-1 in RIG I, became in RIIG the first recorded inscription of the first site of Bouches-du-Rhône, i.e. BDR-01-01. The sites are then grouped by major French regions and can be queried by a simple sorting process, both in the « Inscriptions » section and in the « Sites archéologiques » section.
Within the framework of this ANR 19-CE27-0003 project, we have given priority to the stone inscriptions, which constitute an important part of the Gallo-Greek file and the entire Gallo-Latin file of RIG II.1. For the sake of coherence, notably for the contextualisation of data on Gallo-Greek sites, we have also treated the ceramic inscriptions that were published in RIG I and its supplements, as in the case of Martigues for example. The corpus could later be extended to include inscriptions on instrumentum, instrumentum, including those found outside French territory, even if in the framework of this ANR-19-CE27-0003 project, only data discovered in France are included. We have in fact excluded Gallo-Etruscan inscriptions, as they were already covered in the Lexicon Leponticum, as well as four previously published inscriptions: the one from Port in Switzerland [RIG I, G-280] on a sword, two graffiti found in Manching in Bavaria [ Compléments 2003, G-621] and an inscription on instrumentum from Luxembourg found at Titelberg, [ Compléments 2003, G-620]. At present, the entries are presented in alphabetical order of the department acronym.

Sites and maps


The location of the archaeological sites was based on those available in Pleiades Pleiades and those proposed in Geonames. Geonames. In some cases, particularly for rock inscriptions, we used GPS coordinates. The background map for the distribution of inscriptions is the (Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire project) DARE (Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire project) with the names of cities and roads indicated in their Latin forms.

Datation


The digitisation of the data had to deal with varying attributions and naming habits (according to specialists, according to regions etc.). Dates are presented in Roman numerals (-Ist/Ist) but the encoding is done in a digital way (machine readable) allowing to constitute the facets "Dating". A level of certainty has been assigned to determine whether the dating is assured or not (low/medium (more than a century)/high (less than a century). The division into periods was established as follows (using the example of the -I and I):
-Ist Ist
Full century -0100 to -0001 0001 to 0100
First half -0100 to -0051 0001 to 0050
Second half -0050 to -0001 0051 to 0100
Beginning of the century -0100 to -0071 0001 to 0030
Mid-century -0070 to -0031 0031 to 0070
End of the century -0030 to -0001 0071 to 0100
First third -0100 to -0067 0001 to 0033
Second third -0066 to -0034 0034 to 0066
Last third -0033 to -0001 0067 to 0100
First quarter -0100 to -0076 0001 to 0025
Second quarter -0075 to -0051 0026 to 0050
Third quarter -0050 to -0026 0051 to 0075
Last quarter -0025 to -0001 0076 to 0100

Correspondence with the periods usually called:
  • augustean: `notBefore="-0027" notAfter="0014" cert="high"`
  • ppre-augustaean: `notBefore="-0050" notAfter="-0027" cert="high"`
  • La Tène III : `notBefore="-0100" notAfter="-0025" cert="high"`
  • Tiberius' reign: `notBefore="0014" notAfter="0037" cert="high"`
  • High Empire: ` notAfter="0200" cert="high"`

Epigraphic landscape


The notion of epigraphic landscape allows us to place the Gaulish inscriptions of a given site in a larger framework, integrating the other inscriptions and artefacts found at the same place. For this purpose, we have provided a link to the data of the ERC LatinNow project (starting grant n°715626) headed by Alex Mullen in Nottingham. This link points to their webGIS and, through the various layers available in this project, it is possible to display the desired additional data. Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

Data modelling

Title of inscriptions


In PETRAE, It is necessary to assign a title to identify the inscriptions in the corpus. Some inscriptions have been given names (the dedication to the Mères Nîmoises, for example, or the stele at Saint-Germain-Source-Seine). This type of designation implies an interpretation of the inscription while the exact meaning of the text is often still debated. Also, for the sake of accuracy in the face of our state of knowledge and interpretation of the inscription, we have chosen to be as neutral as possible, indicating only and systematically:
  • the form of the support: stele, plaque, basin, pillar, capital, column, etc. When the form is uncertain or indeterminate, we stick to the support (e.g. stone); these elements are well identified in the LOD and make it possible to align the corpora with each other.
  • a possible adjective, which further specifies the function of the object, when it is known with certainty (e.g.: funerary stele).
  • the place of origin of the registration (e.g.: of Coudoux).
  • the order number (e.g.: funerary stele of Coudoux 1)

Types of texts


The types of texts selected are the following:
  • property mark
  • Funerary inscription (rather than epitaph)
  • Religious/cultural inscription (as the notion of votive inscription refers to the votum which is a purely Roman element)
  • Undetermined
  • Signature of the craftsman
  • Evergetic inscription (especially for monument dedications)
  • Label
  • Quarryman's marks
With the exception of the label, all have a LOD with Pactols Opentheso and Eagle.

Facets, thesauri et Linked Open Data


The facets of the French regions and departments are aligned with each other but also with Geonames and Trismegistos. The facets of the archaeological sites refer to the archaeological module prepared as part of the project ERC Patrimonium (ERC-StG 716375) by Vincent Razanajao. They are aligned with Pleiades. When the inscription is already listed in Trismegistos, the Trismegistos ID is indicated at the end of the record. The RIIG has built up several ontologies collected in the following thesauri which concern: The full EpiDoc XML for each sheet is available for download at the end of each record. This would not have been possible without the work of Nathalie Prévôt and Nolwenn Chevalier.

Readings


The text of the inscription is presented in capitals and as it is read on the object (in scriptio continua if necessary) and the standards are those of the Leyden conventions used in PETRAE. Lunar epsilons and sigmas have been transcribed, as well as cursive omegas where appropriate cases. The reading of this diplomatic version is identified by an author and a tag (e.g. MLE-a), which allows the comments and remarks relating to it to be identified in the apparatus. Each reading is also assigned a level of certainty (high, medium, low) according to the the probability of the reading itself, of the grammatical analysis or of the interpretation that is made of it. The challenge of this presentation is twofold:
  • retrospective and historiographicalby leaving a trace of the different possible interpretations of the same possible interpretations of the same inscription, including some ancient ones that seem unlikely;
  • prospective and heuristicleaving open the various possibilities of interpretation, since in the context of a language with fragmentary attestation such as Gaulish of interpretation, since in the context of a language with fragmentary attestation such as Gaulish some elements are hapaxes and the progress of research will perhaps allow us to prefer one hypothesis to another.
By ticking the 'Linguistic features' box, one can see the breakdown and interpretation that has been made for each element read in the inscriptions, where identifiable for each element read in the inscriptions, where they are identifiable. It is these elements which are used to create the indexes (onomastic, lexical and verbal) and also refer to the elements of grammar and syntax presented in a very synthetic way in the page «Grammatica».

Glyphs


By ticking the box "Glyphs", the letters that have been listed so far in the table in RIG I (pp. 427-431). A renewed repertory of the palaeography of Gaulish inscriptions will soon be available on the page «Grammatica».

Translation


We have proposed elements of translation whenever it seemed possible to do so; They depend on the reading proposed for each text, identified by tags.

General comments


The choice of having several specialists intervene on the same inscription (each in their own language) allows to show the polyphony of studies on Gaulish epigraphy while allowing those who consult the platform the possibility of quoting their sources as closely as possible. The insertion of remarks is done as the project is still in progress. The contributors to each record are mentioned at the bottom of each one.

Sociolinguistic comments


This section brings together brief and often generic remarks for the sake of caution and accuracy. We have chosen to report only those elements that were assured, to establish facts as far as possible, and to keep personal interpretations to a minimum. All of the proposed elements are considered, as a whole, as milestones for the elaboration of the chapters of the final monograph and as elements allowing us to constitute the most reliable sociolinguistic discourse, to the extent of our current knowledge on Gaulish epigraphy.

Bibliography

In the records


There are several bibliographic entries in the records:
  • the edition in corpora which identifies the editio princeps of the inscription
  • Bibliographical commentary which brings together, chronologically, the various bibliographical references relating to the inscription;
  • Bibliography of the RIG which gathers the references present in the initial RIG;
  • Bibliography of the RIIG which gathers the references relating to the inscription published after 1985. The references relating to the archaeological site are specifically collected in the site sheets.

Zotero


All the bibliography cited in the records and all the documents that helped build the corpus are available on the website in the section «Bibliography» but also in a Zotero group to which it is possible to subscribe.
Please contact us to let us know of any references that you think would be useful to add to this to this collection.
In Zotero, the general bibliography is classified by author name, but the references have also been grouped by sub-folders: by inscriptions and by sites, gathered by major regions, thus respecting the general hierarchy of the RIIG.

DOI


Each record is a new edition of the text in its own way. It therefore has a DOI and indicates the date of modification of the data.

How to cite


Exemple given for BDR-01-01:
Ruiz Darasse C., Blanchet H., Jordán Cólera C., Stifter D., Wodtko D., Chevalier N., Prévôt N., « RIIG BDR-01-01 », in Ruiz Darasse C. (éd.), Recueil informatisé des inscriptions gauloises, https://riig.huma-num.fr/, DOI : 10.21412/petrae_riig_BDR-01-01 (last accessed 28 juin 2022).

A URI is available at the bottom of each record for any direct quotation from a registration record.

Images

The images of the initial RIG are available in very low quality and we invite you to consult them on the paper volumes for more details. The images produced in the framework of the RIG have been deposited on the IIIF Nakala platform of the TGIR Huma-Num and are available under the CC-BY-SA-NC-ND 4.0 license. They are free of rights but subject to the duties required by the license:
  • AttributionYou must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. In particular, it is required to mention the author of the photograph, the place of storage and the obligatory information.
  • Non Commercial You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
  • No Derivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
  • No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
Please contact us to see how to integrate your documents or information. Any comments or remarks can be sent to coline.ruiz-darasse@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr or to nathalie.prevot@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr.